This is a question on the very important model of communication.

9.    Poor communication is likely if:

    a)    the encoder and the decoder are not the same person.
    Now that's what I call stupid, since encoder and decoder are always different people in a communication...

    b)    immediate feedback is not possible.
    If this were the case, I think managers would have abandoned mass communication a long time ago, since there is no immediate feedback!

    c)    the source and the receiver don't have personal contact.

    d)    there is no "noise" in the message channel.
    If there is no noise in the channel, chances are that communication will be very good, on the contrary.

    e)    the source and the receiver do not have a common frame of reference.
    That's the correct answer: the most serious problem in communication is to have a common frame of reference. Just think of problems related to the "generation gap": parents and children often do not have the same frame of reference, which sometimes leads to "minor" communication problems!