Helsinki -1999

In order to facilitate the research, the abstracts published in the Proceedings are grouped together by theme:

 

 
Culture and Society
 
  George Soros Foundation and Its Impact on the Development of Contemporary Lithuanian Theatre
Irena Alperyte, Lithuania

Abstract: George Soros is famous as one of the world's greatest philanthropists and democracy-builders in the Eastern and Central Europe. The paper analyses his impact on the new trends in theatre economics of Lithuania.

After the rebuilt of the Independence, the national budget cannot guarantee the same amount for theatre support anymore.

The Open Society Fund Lithuania was established in October 1990 as an independent, non-governmental, non-profit organization (among other 25 foundations established by Soros). The course of transition towards more flexible and diverse models of theatre production, presentation and distribution, has been discussed here as most critical for Lithuania nowadays.

 

  A Reading Pattern Based on Economic and Psycho-sociological Factors
Michelle Bergadaà, Switzerland & Corinne Faure, France

Abstract: This article examines the relative influence of socio-economic variables versus attitudes as regards consumer behavior towards reading as a leisure activity. Previous studies on leisure consider the amount of discretionary time available for the individual as a decisive factor. This study isolates fundamental attitudes towards reading which appear to act as necessary intermediate variables to predict consumer behavior towards this leisure activity. A threshold of involvement is identified, below which individuals appear to feel unconcerned by reading, should they have some discretionary time available or not.

 

  The UK National Lottery and the Arts: Reflections on the Lottery's Impact and Development
S. Creigh-Tyte & Joanne Gallimore, United Kingdom

Abstract: The launch of the UK's National Lottery in November 1994 constituted the biggest development in British Arts funding since World War Two. This paper considers various aspects of the impact and development of Lottery funding over the last 4 years. Particular consideration is given to: the mechanisms for resource allocation under the various Lottery Distributing Bodies,ticket sales and resultant funding flows to date and their distribution,evidence of the impact of the funding regime on capital spending in Arts and wider Lottery sectors. (e.g., net impact, additionality and substitution issues),changes to the distribution systems following the New Labour government's "People's Lottery" White Paper and Lottery act, and likely future trends their implications for the Arts in Britain.

The author's previous published work on this area has covered economic aspects of the National Lottery as a consumer product (Lottery ticket sales) as well as the effects of Lottery funded public expenditure. This paper seeks to present an integrated overview of the Lottery, with particular emphasis on its impact on the arts.

 

  The Marketing of the Performing Arts in Flanders
Guido De Brabander, Anniek Desmet and Krista Van Winkel, Belgium

Abstract: The application of marketing concepts in non-profit organizations has only been recently introduced with success. This applies towards the cultural sector as well. In Flanders the use of marketing techniques in the performing arts sector is just starting to gain acceptance.

In this paper, the authors discuss the current marketing strategies used in the Flemish performing arts institutions to attract the potential public. In addition, suggestions are being formulated to improve the participation, based on best practices abroad, literature studies, panel discussions and in-depth interviews with people working in the performing arts sector.

 

  Brazilian Modern Art and Subjectivities Forging: A Study
Camila Donnola and Regina Andrade, Brazil

Abstract: This study was proceeded in order to investigate the relationship among the different moments of Brazilian art throughout this century viewing the artistical and political context. It is based on the supposition that, during this period, such movements have been producing a mirror of this context and moulding, at the same time, the identities of the nation as a whole, specially in the Southeast region - Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais - and somehow the subjectivities of the people individually. To achieve the objectives we analyzed extracts of the manifestos written by the artists during the 20's and some contemporary expressions of arts. The observation tends to show us the importance and even the essentiality of art manifestations in influencing the construction of a national identity.

The objective of the present work is to establish a relationship between two periods of Brazilian art in the XXth century and subjectivities moulded during this period. It is necessary to make clear, however, on account of its work brevity it is not possible to deal in full detail will all the transformations that happened in brazilian art during such a multiple-influenced century.

Such difficulties become event cleared when we look towards all the subjective changes in those individuals that are linked to one or more of these periods. These changes are, strictly, the object of the present work. An object that, in spite of being still under construction, makes somehow possible for us to try to understand some of the vectors that we considered valuable for contemporary production of subjectivities.

The hypothesis that crosses the text is that, during the XXth century, artistic expressions have had an active paper in the production of subjectivities. In this sense, Muniz Sodré affirms that there "is not one cultural product independent of a social demand management by a market." In the same way, we consider that every market is in continual feedback with its cultural products in the sense of forgoing, in great measure, its own demand.

To work with the precedent hypothesis, it will be described in parallel with aspects of two periods of the cultural production of our country:

- the Brazilian Modernist movement that began with the 1922's Week of Modern Arts; and
- the current period of artistic production that is called Post-modern.

Those periods will be observed through extracts of manifestos and through specialists critics, the modifications suffered by art expressions in each period, will be analyzed viewing also to the sociocultural context and the subjectivities which produces and which are produced from each one of them. 

To this end, we will work with extracts of four manifestos published by the beginning of the Modernist movement. The reason for this choice is that these extracts are considered the most representative and are also illustrative of several tendencies of the Brazilian Modernism.

Are they:

- Manifesto da Poesia Pau-Brasil (Oswald de Andrade, 1924);
- Manifesto Regionalista de 1926/1952 (Gilberto Freyre, 1926/1952);
- Manifesto Antropófago (Oswarl de Andrade, 1928; and
- Manifesto Nhengaçu verde-amarelo (vários, 1929).

In addition to these manifestos, we will use also some examples of the contemporary artistic production.

 

  Post-Fordism, State and Culture Financing: The Portuguese Case
Eduardo Brito Henriques, Portugal

Abstract: This study intends to analyze the recent changes in state attitude and intervention in the cultural field, related to the theories on the crisis of the Fordist state developed in the French school of Regulation. With the Portuguese case study as the starting point, it is intended to ascertain whether the changes occurred in cultural policies since the mid-80's agree with what could be the cultural logic of a supposedly Post-Fordist state.

 

  Arts management and cultural administration in Southeast Asia
Elmar Beltran Ingles, Southeast Asia

Abstract: not available

 

  Culture and Tourism - The marketing of culture
Taina Järvinen & Johanna Grönberg, Finland

Abstract: not available

 

  Public Sector and Cultural Industry
Hannele Koivunen & Tanja Kotro, Finland

Abstract: The share of immaterial commodities is growing in the international markets, mainly thanks to the global market inherent in information networks. The progress towards global markets also involves a number of threats, especially growing economic, regional and contextual concentration and uniformity in the world. Though, globalisation is also an opportunity of the cultural industry, because it widens access to markets. As one of the post-industrial design intensive fields, the cultural industry can be expected to keep growing. The number of small and medium-sized enterprises will probably grow in Finland, too. Today cultural industry is characterized by networking, flexible action models, small enterprises, and the use of information technology. These activities generate different material and immaterial cultural products. Public sector should be able to promote these activities.

 

  The New Canadian Artists Labour Relations System
Benoît Laplante, Canada

Abstract: In Canada, the adoption of the recommendation on the status of the artist by UNESCO in 1980 furthered the creation of an original labour relations system for artists. This system, which originated in Quebec and was implemented at the federal level afterwards, is based in part on a previous system that covered only performing artists and existed without any special legal provision, but considerably extends and transforms some of its characteristics. The new system has been created through specific pieces of legislation, it concerns all artists, it imposes union monopoly on each artistic occupation, it forces producers who contracts with artists to create their own associations and compels these to collective bargaining with artists associations, and states clearly that despite all these provisions, artists are and remain self-employed. Although this system holds some very original and interesting features, could potentially change much of the day to day relations between producers and artists and is being put in place gradually since the end of the eighties, it remains virtually unknown, in Canada and abroad, except by the people who are closely involved in it.

This paper is the first part of an ongoing project that will examine the main features of the system and of its institutions, its historical background, the main steps of its implementation, the debates and disputes that arose form the recognition process of the various artists' and producers' associations and the problems surrounding the bargaining of some of the first collective agreements. In this introductory paper, we focus on the constitutional and legislative context of the system, as well as its main features and its institutions.

 

  Sustainable Partnership: Culture and Arts in the Preparation of St.Petersburg's Tercentenary and Creation of a Cultural Policy
Nina Lebedeva, Russia

Abstract: The article examines integrated questions concerned with the creation of a cultural policy in St.Petersburg and the preparation of the city's 300th anniversary in 2003. It uses the Strategic Plan for St.Petersburg as the foundation outlining the main directions of the city's development and basic principles of the jubilee's concept. The article also provides some information on the process of preparation for the 300th anniversary.

 

  Competition Policy and its Impact on the Queensland Performing Arts Industry
Lesley McLennan, Australia

Abstract: This research presents a preliminary examination of the impact that current changes in Australian federal, state and local governments through competition policy might have on productivity and social goals of subsidized performing arts companies. Nine performing arts organizations took part in a pilot survey which audited features of current organizational, financial, marketing, program and ethical behaviours in subsidized and non-subsidized performing arts organizations in Queensland, Australia.

 

  Managing Malaysian national Theatre : Building a national culture identity for tourism of cultre for nation building ?
Zulkifli Mohamad, Southeast Asia

Abstract: not available

 

  Theatre Tickets prices as a mirror of the cultural life of the society
N.V. Pakhomova, Russia

Abstract: not available

 

  Cultural Industries and the New Aesthetics of Cultural Production
Laurie Meamber & Alladi Venkatesh, USA

Abstract:   The purpose of the paper is to provide a critical analysis of cultural production as an organizing effort that focuses on the role of aesthetics in everyday life in the contemporary postmodern world and examine how the cultural industries contribute to this cultural production. In developing this paper, we first discuss the essential elements of postmodernism that are relevant to our discussion here, then proceed to examine the role of aesthetics in the constitution of the everyday world, and conclude with the presentation of a framework within which cultural production is possible.

 

  Do Cultural Industries make a Difference to Economic Regional Regeneration in the UK?
Simon C. Roodhouse, United Kingdom

Abstract: This paper addresses two emerging, critical issues in the cultural and media industry debate. The first concern focuses on definition and categorization. What are the cultural/creative industries? How are they represented and interpreted in governmental economic tabulations and measures? The second issue is associated with the paucity of accurate, verifiable and published baseline data. It is important to establish such data as resources continue to be used to support the growth of the sector. This paper approaches the two issues through analysis of a commissioned research programme to define the cultural industries in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the UK. 

 

  Television management : The case of brazilian soap opera
Enrique Saravia, Brazil

Abstract: not available

 

  Developments in european copyright law
Tjeerd Schiphof, The Netherlands

Abstract: not available

 

  WaterFire Providence: A Case Study of the Art's Role in Urban Revitalization
Jonathan E. Schroeder, USA

Abstract: This paper will describe art's role in urban revitalization through an in-depth analysis of a major urban art project - WaterFire Providence - drawing from reviews, interviews with the artist, and critical analysis. Throughout, a focus on the interaction of the viewer and the artwork is maintained, as this is the key to its success. Implications for arts and cultural management are drawn, with a particular focus on art and consumption.

WaterFire Providence is a fire sculpture, mystical musical experience, and art installation - but above all it is a powerful force in revitalizing the New England city of Providence, Rhode Island. WaterFire Providence celebrates the reclaiming of Providence's three rivers, completed in 1995 after a ten year project. It is staged every two or three weeks, usually on Saturday nights, and draws thousands of people - families, teenagers, tourists, convention-goers, and local residents - to the riverfront to experience this event, steeped in the ancient elements of water, fire, and music. 

This paper describes art's role in urban revitalization through an in depth analysis of WaterFire Providence's effect on Providence, drawing from reviews, artist's statements, interviews with attendees, and critical analysis. Throughout, a focus on the interaction of the viewer and the artwork is maintained, as this is the key to its success (e.g., Csiksentmihalyi and Robinson 1990; Meamber 1997; Schroeder 1997; 1998). Implications for arts and cultural management are drawn, with a particular focus on art and consumption (e.g. Leppert 1997; McCracken 1988). 

 

  Privatization of culture: comparative analysis of arts sectors in selected central and eastern european countries
Lidia Varbanova, Bulgaria

Abstract: not available

 

Arts Management and Dilemmas in Cultural Policy
Michihiro Watanabe, Japan

Abstract: Arts management today suffers from imprecise and confused cultural policy. Cultural policy fails to diversify resources available to the arts. It confuses the arts with culture despite the fact that these tow are often in conflict each other. It creates a great schism between the high arts and other more humble forms of art. It neglects the desire among people to be creative. It does not prepare the arts for the coming media age. In the absence of plausible policy, arts management education should train not just manager to attend a fraction of population but advocate and reformer working for the better policy environment and creative cause.

   
 
Cultural subfields and networks
 
  Price Indices, Returns, and Risk in the Art Market: Findings for American Paintings Disaggregated by Artist, Genre, and Quality
Richard J. Agnello and Renee K. Pierce, USA

Abstract: Economic research on art markets has generally found low rates of return accompanied by high risk. These findings have been replicated and refined by many researchers, and occasionally contradicted for special cases. In this paper we investigate whether past return and risk findings hold when analyses are disaggregated by artist, genre and quality. Data on over 25,000 paintings by U.S. artists sold at auction from 1971 to 1996 is used to estimate a hedonic log price model with dummy variables reflecting temporal variation. This allows a price index and shadow values for painting characteristics to be simultaneously estimated.

Our findings show price indices rising though the 1980's, falling sharply, and recently rising but generally not to previous peaks. However there is much sensitivity to the particular disagregated segment in returns, risk and the consumption cost for painting purchases. When, what, and whom one invests in matters a great deal just as it does in financial markets. Overall returns to holding paintings are substantially lower than equity markets, and have higher risk although some returns have exceeded inflation during the period. Since the price indices for paintings are quite volatile, one must be careful to measure returns in the same way when comparing with financial alternatives such as bonds. In addition our findings indicate that for high quality paintings in general and certain artists and subject matters in particular, returns can be very high and are not always offset by higher risk. Buying the highest quality has been the best overall investment strategy. This "superstar" effect may prove transitory one a new relative price equilibrium is needed picking the right artist or subject category can prove financially rewarding, although knowing the right one expost is not likely to be of much help exante.

 

  Opera House - A Difficult Thing to Manage? Artistic-Economic Dichotomy and its Manifestations in the Organizational Structures of Four Opera Organizations
Tuomas Auvinen, United Kingdom

Abstract:This paper describes a PhD research project to opera management. It proposes an analytical method to contemplate the artistic-economic dichotomy within opera organizations and the socio-economics framework in which opera organizations operate. In the course of the paper basic findings about the organizational structures and the socio-economic frameworks of four case-study organizations are presented. Based on the case-study findings it is claimed that there often exists a dual organizational structure - artistic and organizational-economic - in opera organizations, which can result in confusion of authority and organizational problems. Conclusions include a model describing the framework, value assumptions and quality concepts in which opera organizations need to operate. Finally, some problems often occurring in opera house management are discussed on the basis of the model created.

 

  To Co-operate or to Complete? A Dilemma for 13 theatres in the city of Milan
Silvia Bagdadli, Paola Dubini & Giuseppe Soda, Italy

Abstract: The proposed paper is based on a recent research that included 13 relevant theatres operation in Milan, Italy, a city well known for the performing arts production, thanks to brilliant director such as Giorgio Strehler. The objectives of the present research are to analyse the network among the 13 theatres "as it is" and to verify the potentiality ("to be") for the construction of a city theatrical network. A critical analysis of the operating costs and revenues of the single theatres is provided. In conducting the research we interviewed main actors of each single theatre, using a social network analysis methodology.

 

  Courting the media : How the 1998 Spoleto festival USA attracted media coverage
Michael Braun, USA

Abstract: not available

 

  Performing and managing very well : The English Chamber Orchestra
Derrick Chong, United Kingdom

Abstract: not available

 

  Future gains and reinvestment :Education and outreach activities among selected New Orleans-area performing arts organizations
Philip M. Dobard, USA

Abstract: not available

 

  Public Libraries and User Fees - Some Essential Perspectives
Charlotte Egholm and Henrick Jochumsen, Denmark

Abstract: New challenges facing public libraries require increasing resources or/and a more systematic approach in selecting from the increasing amount of new materials and filtering the overwhelming information glut. In facing this dilemma one idea could be to introduce user fees. This paper reports on the results of investigations on the nature and amount of user fees established in public libraries in several countries. The paper discusses six general perspectives on user fees related to the future role of public libraries: 1) the financial rationale underlying user fees; 2) the willingness of user to pay; 3) user fees as a means of collecting information on user preferences and controlling/limiting its use; 4) the impact on the social distribution of library services; 5) aspects of rethinking the modern welfare state; and 6) aspects of enlightenment in a post-modern society.

On the threshold of the so-called Information Society the public libraries, like other cultural and public institutions, face a host of new challenges. These challenges call for either increasing resources or/and for libraries to take a more careful and conscious approach to selecting from the increasing amount of new materials across the spectrum of media and in filtering the overwhelming information that public libraries can now make available to the citizens. In confronting this dilemma, many politicians and officials have sought to introduce user fees or raise existing user fees. In 1997, the debate on introducing user fees in public libraries was raised in Denmark with the publication of a report prepared by a committee under the Danish Ministry of Culture. The mandate of the committee was to examine and present recommendations on the future role of public libraries in the Information Age and on the threshold of the Information Society. The report recommends changes in the Danish Library Act, so as to allow for the introduction of user fees in Danish public libraries for the purpose of co-financing the increasing costs of new media, information and communication technology, new services etc. Political negotiations on the proposal of a new Danish Library Act are still ongoing this spring (1999) with one of the most controversial issues being the issue of user fees.

This paper presents the results of two studies carried out by the authors in 1996 and 1997, respectively, on the nature and amount of user fees in public libraries in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales). Empirical findings of the investigations provided us with extensive knowledge. Nevertheless, we find it even more interesting to focus on more general perspectives of user fees related to the future role of public libraries. Hence, we will present and discuss six key issues emerging from both our empirical findings and our own astonishment at the reactions of the professionals following the recommendations made by the above-mentioned committee under the Danish Ministry of Culture to allow the introduction of user fees in the Danish public libraries. Examining the reactions of the professionals, i.e. the librarians, the debate is characterized by an overwhelming opposition to user fees. Opposition is so massive that one might talk about an a priori opposition based more on a "theology of librarianship" than any willingness to actually discuss the many important and complex aspects of user fees as a means of co-financing public services in a modern welfare state.

 

  A Cultural Partnership in Action: Case Study of Public Libraries and the Further Promotion of the Arts in Ireland
Anne Kelly, Ireland

Abstract: Cultural planning in Ireland took a new turn in 1993 with the appointment of the first full Cabinet Minister for Arts and Culture. This marked a watershed in the arts, and while the "arms-length" principal still applies through the long established Arts Council, the existence of the Minister and the availability of funding through EU sources brought a new emphasis on policy and ultimately the publication of a three-year plan. (Arts Plan 1995-97) This had first been proposed in the Progamme for a Partnership Government 1993097 and was prepared by the Arts Council and presented to the coalition Government. The planning period was subsequently extended to 1998.

An important element of this plan was the stress on developing strategic partnerships and alliances as a method of maximizing benefit for the arts in Ireland, and a number of these have emerged between the Arts Council and other bodies. This paper concerns one such initiative, in this case an alliance between the arts council ant the Library Council. The research focused on a baseline study on the present and potential role of arts and libraries in cultural life in Ireland.

Previous studies have identified access and participation as significant issues in cultural provision and uptake, particularly for low income groups and disadvantaged areas, and the public library system as significant in terms of access. International research ahs suggested that inter-agency work, although not without difficulty, can be synergistic and innovative in the development of new services, now ways of working and new values. A number of characteristics of the public library, including the free, neutral and safe identification of the physical space, are regarded as conducive to access. In particular the library service provides young people with an introduction to civil society and the system is seen as an exceptionally appropriate host for community arts activities.

This paper examines the research outcomes and, in particular, the nature of partnership in projects of this kind. It indicates that there are fruitful opportunities for partnership, not just between arts and libraries, but also between both disciplines and wide range of other agencies and groups. Prominent among these are the other departments and functions of local authorities. It examines the notion of "strategic partnership" as collaborations which (a) benefit both, or all partners, and (b) advance the achievement of each partner's long-term goals, as distinct from the efficiency or effectiveness of their operations. A model for the development of a strategic partnership is also developed and applied to the arts and library sector in Ireland. 

 

  The Main Trends in the Development of the Theatrical Offer in Russia in 1990's
Irina Khijinskaia, Elena Lebshina, Maria Naimark & Olesiya Strunina, Russia

Abstract: In the paper there are discussed the main trends of the theatrical offer and of the state policy upon theatre during last ten years.

The dominant direction of the research is dedicated to the dynamics of the theatrical life in Russia and the problems, which accompany these changes. It's found out that raising of the total offer depends not only on the whole number of the companies but also on the development of the general infrastructure. In the research there are elucidated as well the questions connected with the state theatre policy and coordination of the theatre life in Russia.

 

  Can digital technologies play a central role in developing the managerial capabilities of arts and cultural managers
Archie Kleingartner, USA

Abstract: not available

 

  Aesthetic & Management & Music research on symphony orchestras in Finland and Sweden
Niina Koivunen, Finland & Ann-Sofie Köping, Sweden

Abstract: not available

 

  Development of Relational Bonds in a Regional Opera Cooperation Network Opera Cooperation Network
Hannele Kämppi, Finland

Abstract: My research deals with a case study of one regional opera in Finland and reports on how it is planned and carried out by using interaction and network approaches as theoretical framework. The opera in question is the opera of Mikkeli, which produces one opera or operetta yearly using local amateurs and both local and national professionals. The permanent organization is small, only part-time volunteers like the chairman of the board of The Mikkeli Opera Association and the board (10 members). Each opera project is organized separately as an ad hod cooperation network, where only the local opera choir, a few local soloists and some active opera friends from the foundation for the project.

The corporate mission of the regional opera of Mikkeli is to produce opera and musical theatre services in a highly qualified manner for the entertainment and enjoyment of mainly local customers by gathering local, national and also international performers as well as production and marketing partners together. The internal mission is to give satisfaction and enjoyment to the volunteering and professional staff as well.

In the production of an opera many stakeholders are involved: to obtain the funding, to recruit skillful people, to rehearse them and to get publicity and to market the performances. In the performance phase about 130 people are involved, including all performers and stage staff. Each member in this network is important for the quality of the performance. There should not be any "weak linds."

The aim of the research is to find out how relational bonds - attraction, trust and commitment develop during the opera project all through the whole production organization. To understand the development of relational bonds, the structure of the production network (focal net), the substance of network relationship (activity links, resource ties and actor bonds) and the production process are researched. My paper includes basic conceptual analysis of interaction and network approach, relationships and attraction, commitment and trust both in industrial interaction (IMP-group) and customer service encounter and in the regional opera context. The empirical data collection is still continuing. The case organization is Mikkeli Opera and projects research in the pilot study were "Der Freischüz" by Carl Maria von Feber in 1996-1997 and "Gibsy Paron" by Johan Strauss jr. in 1997-1998. The opera project under study is "Don Giovanni" by Mozart 1998-1999.

 

  Access to the Information: How the Virtual Business Library Meets the Virtual Researchers
Eeva-Liisa Lehtonen, Finland

Abstract: The mission of the HSEBA States that the library and information services will be developed as the leading national resource center for economics and business sciences in Finland. The ambitious objective of the library is to produce one of the best library and information services in Europe. The strategy is that of a virtual library combined with the new ideas of knowledge management. An entrepreneurial approach has been adopted in the library as a challenge of the future. The idea is to fully exploit the expertise in processing and analyzing the data from the printed and electronic sources to give value-added to the researchers, teachers, student and the business life. The information systems - tools and know-how - for the virtual library exist even now.

Digitalization brings new ways of working in the research community. The keywords for the future will be the active dialogue and interaction between researchers and libraries. The information chain of publishing is changing. There are many processes worth redefining. Economic, human and technical aspects of electronic publishing should be discussed such as formats, protocols, standards, networking, retrieval techniques, integrity and preservation, print on demand, intellectual property rights and license agreements, digital collections and their relations to traditional libraries. 

 

  Dynamic of Theatre Offer in Moscow
Iouri Orlov, Russia

Abstract: The point of the report is analysis of dynamics of theatre web, performances number and theatre auditorium of Moscow. In 1960-1970th there were 25 functioning theatres in Moscow, in 1985 - 31. Since 1987, in the period of effective social and economical reforms in Russia, theatre reforms either began. in parallel with state, private and other kinds of theatre appear. So, by 1990, in three years, the number had increased three times. Starting with 1996 it began to fall, as well the quantity of performances did. In comparison with 1990 the amount of performances in 1996 decreased on 25 % and audience number especially much - on 64 %. So, the problem of ticket prices is talked about.

Study of the theatrical offer is one of ways of determination of the important parameters of theatre audience. It is necessary for solving problems of its rational forming, extension and regulation. In the certain part theatrical offer characterizes the more broad concept - theatrical life of city.

 

  Online Professional Development for Cultural Managers
William D. Poole & David W. Barr, Canada

Abstract: The Center for Cultural Management (CCM) is a not-for-profit organization based at the University of Waterloo with a national (and where appropriate, international) mandate for the support of cultural managers, trustees, volunteers and policy makers.

The Centre is preparing for enhanced services to the cultural sector through the use of the internet as a service delivery vehicle which transcends geographic barriers inherent in the Canadian context. The availability of mid-career professional development is an increasingly urgent requirement of Canadian cultural managers at a time when budgetary constraints make travel costs prohibitive.

The first conceptualization of the CCM website was made in 1996, followed by concept and graphic design in the first quarter of 1997. The site was opened in May of 1997, and development has continued to the present. Initial website function provided for basic delivery of information, networking and site hosting for organizations of professionals with related interests.

In a second phase of development the website began to function as the foundation and central node in Canadian Cultural Management Network (an extranet ( of resource sharing, capacity enhancement and community building. There are now seven related organizations co-hosted at the CCM website, providing an array of complementary online services, information and communications.

 

  A relative efficiency analysis of the theatres of "Circuit teatral Valenci` (CTV)" : A political economy approach
Pau Rausell & Salvador Carrasco

Abstract: not available

 

  The Problems of the Lyric Theatres in London a Stakeholder View
Richard Reavill, United Kingdom

Abstract: The Lyric Theatres of London, and particularly the leading Lyric Theatre, the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, (ROH), have recently been the subject of very public criticism. This paper relates the events concerning the redevelopment of the ROH, and analyses the problems in terms of the influence and objectives of the various stakeholders and stakeholder groups. It concludes that the problems were caused primarily by a combination of managerial incompetence and the influence of certain stakeholder groups whose objectives were not consistent with those of the ROH. The stakeholder groups most adversely affected were the performers and the general public.

 

  The Sense of Organizing Theatre: Exploring Repertoire Decision-Making in Narrative Perspective
Saara L. Taalas, United Kingdom

Abstract: This paper will centre on exploring organizational sense-making in theatre. The paper will look into the practice of making key repertoire decisions in non-profit performing 
arts theatre and suggests that a narrative approach can cast new light on the practice of organizing theatre in two ways. First, it will provide a way to assess the influences of the artistic and production processes on theatre enhances theoretical understanding of the roles organizational sense-making and decision-making play in organizing, and enables the decision-markers to become more informed about the manners they employ.

 

  Culture for the Virtual Consumer
Liisa Uusitalo, Finland

Abstract: The paper discusses the impacts of the New media on cultural consumption. Especially two emerging trends are pointed out: First, there are new possibilities for the consumer to search and shop for cultural services in the internet. This means that the internet offers a new marketplace, distribution channel, or interactive communication medium for the marketing of traditional cultural products and services. Secondly, there will be available totally new types of "virtual" cultural and media products for the consumer. It will be suggested that these developments may lead to profound changes in the marketing paradigm as well as in the way of conceptualizing the consumer choice processes.

 

Nonprofit professional theatres : Organizational values, external network development, and performance
Zannie Giraud Voss & Glenn B. Voss, USA

Abstract: not available

   
  Management
  "Talking about a revolution !" The management of change in arts and cultural organisations
Susanne Burns, United Kingdom

Abstract: No industry is immune to change. Arts and cultural enterprises are familiar with change and active arts managers are becoming increasingly intimate with its implications. But, how are we managing it? This paper refers to a larger study being undertaken between 1999 and 2002 into the management of change in arts and cultural organizations in the UK. The aim of the study is to identify both the management competencies and organizational capabilities with are required to successfully deal with change. One element of it will track two orchestras as they develop, define and implement change programmes. In this paper, the overall UK context is presented along with an outline of the Stabilization Programme and "snapshots" of the two orchestras at the commencement of the study.

 

  The relational structure of the cultural fiels as a determinant of cultural entrepreneurship
Xavier Castaner, USA

Abstract: not available

 

  Is the Audience more Important than the Art? The Impact of Economic Rationalist Policies on Government Intervention in the Cultural Sector, with Specific Reference to Australia from 1993-1999
Jo Caust, Australia

Abstract: There is a long history of government involvement in cultural sector support. What I am currently interested in is the changing nature of that relationship in Australia and elsewhere. Should the arts be encouraged to be commercially competitive, prone to market forces and receive little or no government subsidy, or remain wholly or partially supported by government funding? Should government resources be directed to support the audience through marketing initiatives, rather than provide direct subsidy to the producers? What should relationship be between the arts sector and government? There are no simple answers to these questions, but the changing environment does require an exploration of the relevant issues. I argue that an alternative to the current economic rationalist discourse is required. I consider then the development of a "cultural model" for government intervention which would include community and economic values, but is not dominated by them. 

 

  Marketing Management in the Performing Arts Organizations: An Empirical Regional Study
Manuel Cuadrado & Marta Frasquet, Spain

Abstract: This paper attempts to study the performing arts organizations from a marketing perspective. We first analyze the situation of the performing arts in Spain and some marketing management aspects related to the arts as a framework to the empirical survey, which is central to this paper. The overall goal of this survey is to examine how performing arts organizations apply marketing principles in their management process, namely, to analyze the marketing management. The results highlight that performing arts organizations in the country are adopting marketing tools, as international literature suggested, but with different levels of implication and are using some marketing techniques exclusively, without any accurate co-ordination.

 

  Patterns of Management in Four Finnish Festivals
Marja Eriksson & Kari Voutila, Finland

Abstract: The management of cultural organizations need more and more knowledge and skills in order to legitimize the economic needs and to position their organization in the competitive and collaborative cultural field. In order to ensure the success and continuity of the organization the management has to act in various networks and co-operative collaborations. We study the management of four Finnish annual festivals taken place in different parts of the country for a couple of decades. We describe the income sources of the festivals by four dimensions: public support, audience, sponsorship and voluntary work, and illustrate the festival management in terms of the network relations. We found that the patterns of festival management varied according to sustaining the autonomy Vs active networking.

 

  The arts organization: Managing Change or Changing the Management?
Graeme Evans, United Kingdom

Abstract: This paper discusses the impacts arising form the professionalization and performance evaluation of subsidized arts organizations in the UK. The context of this study is the increased accountability and measurement of outputs by government funding agencies, and the related drive for improved productivity and efficiency. The paper considers the organizational responses and emergence of a new managerialist culture and the tensions arising from this standardization of cultural production, with a case study of the Tate Gallery. An assessment of the determinants of leadership influencing the culture of arts organizations argues for more pluralist management and evaluation of performance Beyond the 3-Es.

 

  Pioneering in the field of strategic arts management, an introduction
Giep Hagoort, The Netherlands

Abstract: not available

 

  "Don't Make a Soap Opera out of a Crisis - Proactive Crisis Management Strategies for Arts Organizations"
Deborah Hayes, United Kingdom

Abstract: This paper explores crises from the perspective of the turbulent performing arts sector, where their impact can be serious, damaging reputation and on occasions threatening an organization's raison d'être.

Arts managers have traditionally adopted a reactive approach to crises handling as the case study of the Royal House demonstrates. It focuses on the damage caused by panic driven communication responses which have amplified the scale and scope of the crisis. Its origins were financial, but it has escalated into a crisis of confidence with some stakeholder groups now questioning the value of publicity funded opera and ballet. The case raises generic communication and management issues, highlighting a host of blunders that will have resonance for many organizations.

This paper concludes with a strong case for arts managers to develop proactive crisis management strategies as an imperative. The innovative crisis management framework suggests an holistic approach and presents a new paradigm for cultural managers incorporating three key elements: the identification and evaluation of risks; procedural arrangements for operating in a disaster situation and effective communications to ensure the continuing support of stakeholders.

 

  Music Festival and Financial Source in Creative Cities
Jun Ikegami, Japan

Abstract: In many cities in Europe and Japan, citizens promote creative circumstance for creative decision-making by the strategy for "creative city" with new financial sources. Those sources can encourage not only offering the chance for excellent education for children and students and giving opportunity for opening creators' works, but also setting the music hall, making good use of their cultural heritage and saving old rows of houses. The analysis of research cards about music festival in Japan shows as follows. It is necessary for a city to make sure of art management systems for cultural services and to develop of inhabitants' acceptant capacity of the cultural services by the cultural urban design or planning within fiscal limit since 1980s.

 

  Knowledge and Expertise in the Contemporary Art Markets
Annukka Jyrämä & Johanna Moisander, Finland

Abstract: This paper is discusses and analyzes the role and nature of art related business knowledge and expertise in the contemporary art markets. More specifically, the role and importance of knowledge and information in dealing with the complexities and uncertainties of the markets are discussed. Also, based on findings from a recent empirical study on the structure and practices of contemporary art markets, the elements and nature of art related business knowledge and expertise are analyzed. Finally, the production of knowledge in the art market is shortly discussed an some conclusions and implications for art management are drawn.

 

  New Models for Corporate/Non-Profit Arts Partnerships: Some International Case Studies and Examples
Lydia A. Kan, United Kingdom

Abstract: This paper explores how multinational corporations are seeking new kinds of partnerships with the arts and cultural sector. Changing consumer needs, increases in business corporate social responsibility activities, a new respect and need for creativity in the workplace, and the desire for businesses to reach groups of highly desirable consumers set the stage for flexible and innovative thinking in corporate marketing departments. These strategic partnerships are not philanthropically oriented, and are only distantly related to sponsorships. The partnerships represent a long-term commitment between organizations that both learn - corporations and communities. What follows is background on this area, and details of three partnerships in the arts that were developed to meet different corporate needs.

 

  Survey on the Status Quo of Arts Management Training in Japan: Training Conditions from the Participants' Perspective
Susumu Kobayashi, Toshie Yamazaki & Naoto Ogawa, Japan

Abstract: "The Status Quo of Education and Training for Arts Management in Japan" in 1996 was significantly conducive in grasping its situations. Its findings led us to limit the scope of this survey to prefectural level training and participants of four prefectural training. The analysis of the environment, awareness, evaluation, and results of participants provided an index for Japan's richer arts and culture policy and projects. We present points fro future consideration: 1) Adjustment of the training contents to participants' characteristics and needs; 2) Establishment of a project evaluation system; 3) Network system formation to share information and challenges.

 

  An Incentive Compatible Arts Subsidy Model
Benjamin Downs Lane & Monika Mokre, Austria

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present an incentive compatible model for cultural subsidies. The model has been developed in response to difficulties which have arisen over the years in Austrian cultural policy and which we consider to be the partial result of false incentive structures within the funding mechanisms used.

Ideally, a cultural financing instrument should support cultural organizations in the pursuit of their artistic goals. However it is frequently the case that the means by which money is distributed cause cultural organizations to behave in a manner which is in fact detrimental to their aims. For example, a group producing experimental work will be ill-served by a funding system which forces it to yield to popular tastes, just as a popular theater or music production may suffer if it has no financial incentive to reach its audience.

A cultural budget may therefore be more efficiently distributed if a variety of funding instruments is employed, each one designed to avoid creating false incentives for a given cultural pursuit. The difficulty is however that policy makers cannot be automatically know what the goals of a funding applicant are, and applicants themselves may well find it in their best interest financially to misrepresent their goals if the chances of receiving a larger grant are thereby improved. Indeed, the Austrian experience indicates that many groups producing popular works seem more comfortable with a guarantee of deficit coverage that with the idea that they should actually be reliant on attracting audiences.

The financing model which we have developed for an Austrian provincial authority therefore seeks to address these difficulties by providing strong financial incentives for applicants to choose that funding instrument which is best suited to their artistic goals.

 

  The Intermediaries of Contemporary Art: An Analysis of the Impact of Differentiation Strategies on Market Share
Elisabetta Lazzaro, Italy

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explain the market share of an art intermediary through its differentiation strategy by market and by artist. I provide an overview of the segmentation of the international market of contemporary art, and art intermediaries. I develop an econometric model in order to investigate how geographic and product differentiation affect the sales of an intermediary. I apply this model to auction data, finding that artist and market differentiation positively affect market share. I complete the empirical analysis with a study of the market concentration, allowing possible extensions for art galleries.

 

  Strategic Management Types and the Performing Arts Organization: An Adaptation of the Miles & Snow Typology
Stephen B. Preece, Canada

Abstract: Performing Arts organizations (PAO) are under severe stress. Escalating costs, competing offerings, and government cutbacks are all threatening the viability of PAOs (Gattuso 1996; Kotler & Scheff 1997; Taalas 1997). More than ever, effective management tools and clear strategic thinking are needed to ensure the survival of groups devoted to the live performance of music, dance and theatre (Byrnes 1993).

Strategic management is about aligning organizations with their relevant environments, thereby ensuring survival (David 1995). Managers need to be sure that such areas as organization structure and firm resources fit appropriately with overall strategy and industry characteristics. Arts organization administrators often consider their challenges to be qualitatively different from those facing traditional managers in the private sector. Nevertheless, the adaptation of strategy models to performing arts groups can hold promise, as long as explicit attention is given to the overriding goal of the PAO: the successful production of worthwhile artistic outputs, as opposed to profits for shareholders (Sukel 1978).

One of the most enduring strategic management models is the Miles & Show (M&S) typology (Miles, Snow, Meyer and Coleman 1978). It's twenty-year history includes numerous empirical and theoretical applications to business organizations. The purpose of this paper is to adapt the M&S model to performing arts organizations which have as their central mission the production of live, artistic performance. The intent will be to strengthen PAOs by improving their strategic planning and management efforts.

 

  Is Creativity a Matter for Cultural Leaders?
Ruth Rentschler, Australia

Abstract: A climate of change in the 1990s and the growing recognition of a need for creativity in management raise the issue of how nonprofit art museum directors are applying creativity to their managerial roles. Change has heightened tensions in the role of the director which have long been recognized in the conceptual and empirical museums literature. Reports from the populations of art museum directors in Australia and New Zealand revealed six strategic responses to change which affect their creative approach to leadership: economic emphasis, change orientation, audience development, cooperation, accessibility and community relations. The question this paper poses is whether the change in directors' roles has endangered the traditional view of creativity. The answer proposed is to balance creativity in the art work with a strategy which sees creativity in management leadership.

 

  Leadership Competence in Developing Partnerships in Music
Arja Ropo & Erika Sauer, Finland

Abstract: There is no such thing as a free lunch. (Common knowledge)

You have money, I have ideas, why won't we stick together. (General manager of an orchestra)

The paper describes and analyzes partnership development of a symphony orchestra from the leadership competence perspective. Four types of partnerships were identified: Solo (one-sided contribution with short-term commitment), Audience (mutual contribution with short-term commitment), Second Violin (one-sided contribution with long-term commitment), and Chamber Orchestra (mutual contribution with long-term commitment). Various leadership roles and competencies played an integral part in these partnerships. We found that as the partnerships evolved, leadership roles were shared among the orchestra actors and the partners to some extent. The partnerships molded the orchestra economically, relationally, and culturally through different leadership roles and competencies.

 

  Market, Hierarchy and Cooperation in the Italian Cinema Industry
Severino Salvemini & Giuseppe Delmestri, Italy

Abstract: We describe the technical and economic characteristics that have most influenced the creation of specific economic orders in the cinema industries of USA, Germany and Italy, and highlight their similarities with those of other culture and industrial sectors. We concentrate on the interdependence of economic activities, which may be governed by hierarchical, negotiated or market-based coordination mechanisms. We propose for Italy the promotional network model of reciprocal support between independent but interdependent actors to support this country's reemergence in the international markets. The promotional network is considered as the way to reform the model of geographical centralisation favoured by the Italian State and "supported" by clannish relationships which we do not consider adequate for the future.

 

  Comparative management. USA arts organizations and the Royal Opera House
Anne W. Smith, USA

Abstract: not available

 

  Business is the Best Art
Terry Sulymko, Canada

Abstract: This paper looks for areas where management might be improved by borrowing "best practices" form the arts. The methodology reviews the personal correspondence of great artists and compares it to management literature already interested in exploring the business/art relationship. The areas of best practices discussed relate to technical versus creative skills, making music, and understanding the art spirit. If entrepreneurial and art spirit can be seen in the same light, then business may yet become the best art.

 

  Hidden from View: The Shape of Arts Works and Arts Organizations in the UK
Janet Summerton & Sue Kay, United Kingdom

Abstract: This paper sets out to accomplish four things. First, in questions the relevance of classic corporate management and organization theories to arts work and arts enterprises in the UK. Second, it reflects on the usefulness of current writing about temporary or virtual groups and flexible, non-linear, organic organizational development. Third, it explores some of the defining characteristics of artists and arts organizations operating in the not primarily for profit sphere. Fourth, it proposes a new, inclusive framework which, it is suggested, will help produce richer and more accurate understandings of arts work and arts organizations in the future. In this paper we make a case for re-framing existing and evolving patterns of activity in the arts in the United Kingdom in order the better to see them.

 

  Le marketing des organisations culturelles : pour une autre approche conceptuelle
Isabelle Assassi, France

Abstract: Ce papier de recherche est fondé sur l'analyse de quinze ans de littérature consacrée à la définition et à la proposition d'une démarche marketing pour les organisations culturelles. Cette analyse permet ce comprendre que les fondements théoriques du marketing des organisations culturelles sont issus notamment du marketing des organisations non lucratives, mais que certaines conclusions (notion de publics multiples, notamment) ne sont pas suffisamment approfondies par les auteurs intéressés par cette question, peuvent venir enrichir la définition et le cadre conceptuel du marketing des organisations culturelles : les apports théoriques issus du marketing des services et du marketing dit " relationnel ", permettent en effet de proposer un nouveau cadre conceptuel du marketing des organisations culturelles, et d'ouvrir de nouvelles voies de réflexion et de recherche.

 

  Activités commerciales des Musées d'état Italiens
Milena I. Boni, Italie

Abstract: La loi Ronchey (1993) est bien connue en Italie pour sa portée innovatrice dans la gestion des services culturels, puisqu'elle a ouvert à l'initiative privée les activités commerciales des musées, galeries, bibliothèques, archives, monuments et sites archéologiques de l'État.

En particulier, cette loi : libéralise l'usage des biens culturels de l'État. Le ministère peut accorder l'autorisation à la reproduction en fac-similé, copie et objets dérivés des biens conservés. La redevance due pour l'usage des biens est fixée par un Barème des Tarifs (D.M. 8/4/94); établit les services annexes (auprès des institutions susmentionnées) offerts au public moyennant paiement et dont la gestion peut être confiée en concession à des particuliers. Actuellement, l'instrument qui régit cette disposition est le Règlement de 1997; assigne les recette au Ministère qui les affecte (intégralement) aux Directions Générales des institutions de provenance

L'objectif du ministre Ronchey était de favoriser : la modernisation de l'offre de services culturels dans le but d'élargir le public des bénéficiaires, ainsi que d'améliorer la qualité des services mêmes; la valorisation du patrimoine culturel de l'État pour apporter de nouvelles ressources financières aux institutions culturelles

La loi a eu du mal à démarrer : c'est à partir de 1997 sous le ministère Veltroni, caractérisé par un programme politique concentré sur les connexions entre le développement économique et les biens culturels et par une intense activité législative d'amélioration de la loi Ronchey, que de nombreuses concessions ont été signées.

Cette communication se base sur nos recherches (Giglio, 1998) concernant le merchandising de biens culturels, c'est-à-dire les activités de production et de commercialisation de brochures, livres, images et objets, dérivés du patrimoine culturel, sous ses différentes formes de copies, reproductions sur divers supports et évocations; activités menées par des particuliers auprès des institutions de l'État. Nous avons examiné ces activités du point de vue du chef d'entreprise/concessionnaire.

 

  Le Cas de la SODEC (Société de développement des entreprises culturelles du Québec)
Bernard Boucher, Canada

Abstract: Selon un concept de guichet unique, le gouvernement du Québec a créé la SODEC, une société mandataire qui administre les soutiens publics destinés aux industries culturelles. Le modèle retenu confère à cette société un rôle étendu dans la gestion des marchés de la culture. S'appuyant sur une structure consultative permanente, l'institution est à la fois un administrateur de crédits parlementaires, un gestionnaire de mesures fiscales et une banque d'affaires. Le Québec étant le seul État francophone en Amérique, le modèle de la SODEC correspond-il au rôle stratégique que jouent les industries culturelles dans l'affirmation de l'identité québécoise? Il représente un cas singulier de management et de participation des milieux professionnels à l'action de l'État.

 

  L'effet du temps sur la mémorisation de l'information et l'attitude envers l'expérience musicale : une étude exploratoire et empirique
Laurent Bourdeau et Jean-Charles Chebat, Canada

Abstract: Dans cette recherche, 61 visiteurs d'une exposition présentant des œuvres non-figuratives ont répondu à un questionnaire à deux reprises. Ces visiteurs ont complété un questionnaire immédiatement après la visite de l'exposition d'une galerie d'art, puis ont répondu à un deuxième questionnaire sept jours après la visite. Les résultats démontrent que le temps a peu d'effet sur la mémorisation des titres. Toutefois, le temps permet aux visiteurs d'accroître la mémorisation des tableaux non-figuratifs. L'attitude des visiteurs face à l'expérience muséale n'est pas affectée par le temps.

 

  L'offre tarifaire des institutions culturelles en France
Dominique Bourgeon-Renault, France

Abstract: L'objectif de la recherche est de mettre en évidence le rôle joué par la politique de fixation du prix, dans le secteur des arts du spectacle vivant en France, et, plus particulièrement, dans le domaine théâtral. En raison des contraintes liées aux spécificités du secteur, le prix du billet d'un spectacle n'est pas fonction des coûts de production, mais semble déterminé par les possibilités de la demande sociale.

Après avoir analysé les éléments de la politique tarifaire actuelle des institutions culturelles françaises, nous étudierons les réactions et la perception du public de théâtre à l'égard de cette politique de prix. Enfin, nous envisagerons d'étudier le concept de la valeur à travers le jugement que peut porter le consommateur à l'égard du produit culturel.

 

  Le Contexte social : un facteur déterminant des comportements de sortie culturelle
Stéphane Debenedetti, France

Abstract: Cette communication présente les premiers résultats d'une recherche qualitative sur l'influence du contexte social de la sortie muséale sur les comportements des publics. Après avoir introduit les notions de contexte social intime (représenté par l'unité sociale à laquelle appartient l'individu) et de contexte social élargi (représenté par les autres unités sociales présentes sur le lieu culturel), cette présentation insiste sur le rôle du contexte social dans la motivation et la satisfaction à l'égard de la sortie muséale. En conclusion sont discutés les apports théoriques et pratiques de cette recherche.

 

  Les journées de la culture québécoise comme activités culturelles groupies : durée de vie et facteurs
C. Dufresne-Tassée, A. Weltzl-Fairchild et R. Lachapelle, Canada; M.C. O'Neill, France

Abstract :Une analyse d'un événement culturel, " Les Journées de la culture du Québec ", a permis de proposer un type de gestion qui en assure le renouvellement à long terme sans utiliser les moyens classiques qui sont habituellement d'autant plus coûteux que l'on veut allonger la durée de vie de l'événement.

Le but de la recherche décrite est d'élaborer les éléments d'une gestion d'un événement culturel : " Les Journées de la culture du Québec ". Le type de gestion proposé a pour but d'assurer un renouvellement des Journées sur une période d'environ dix ans sans avoir recours aux moyens classiques : diversification des activités, introduction des nouveautés accrocheuses ou accroissement du caractère spectaculaire de l'événement.

Nous décrirons d'abord brièvement les Journées, les intentions de leur créateur et le type d'activités offertes, puis les moyens choisis par les organisateurs pour abaisser les barrières qui empêchent habituellement les gens de participer aux événements culturels. Nous identifierons ensuite ce qu'un participant aux Journées était susceptible d'apprendre. Enfin, nous nous interrogerons sur l'avenir des Journées et proposerons une gestion susceptible de l'assurer, tout en améliorant la relation de la population à la culture.

 

  Marketing et cinéma : un état de l'art marketing
Florence Euzeby, France

abstract: L'objectif de la communication est de présenter de façon synthétique et critique l'ensemble des travaux réalisés en marketing sur le domaine cinématographique. Ceux-ci font preuve d'une grande diversité. Certaines recherches ont pour objectif d'expliquer, modéliser, prédire les succès ou échecs des films. D'autres se sont plus particulièrement focalisées sur les comportement du consommateur (influences des éléments externes et internes au film, la prise en compte de l'émotion…). Cette synthèse permet de souligner un certain nombre de pistes de recherche prometteuses.

 

  Co-présence d'un changement de structure et d'une crise d'identité organisationnelle : l'étude du Musée du Louvre
Anne Gombault, France

Abstract: L'identité organisationnelle, ensemble des perceptions des acteurs de l'identité de leur organisation, est une approche originale pour mettre en lumière, décrire, et tenter de comprendre certains aspects du comportement organisationnel. L'étude, à but exploratoire, réalisée avec une méthodologie inductive et qualitative, montre comment le changement de structure du Musée du Louvre s'est accompagné d'un changement d'identité organisationnelle et a provoqué ce que l'on a appelé ici " une crise d'identité organisationnelle ". Cette crise peut se définir comme une atteinte au sentiment d'identité de l'organisation éprouvé par ses membres. Elle exprime et résout à la fois le paradoxe de l'évolution de l'identité organisationnelle dans le changement. Enfin, elle illustre la complexité de gestion des institutions culturelles modernes.

 

  Le Caractère non lucratif des activités culturelles en droit français
France Guillemonat, France

Abstract: not available

 

  L'influence de la critique sur le point de vente : une approche exploratoire sur le marché du disque classique
Fabrice Larceneux, France

Abstract: L'objectif de cette recherche est d'étudier dans quelle mesure la critique peut avoir un effet significatif sur les ventes dès lors qu'il s'agit de produits expérientiels dont la qualité est difficilement identifiable a priori. Contrairement aux recherches antérieures sur l'impact des sources d'information expérientielle impersonnelle, la critique étudiée ici prend la forme de sticks collés sur les emballages distinguant certains disques. Les résultats de la recherche montrent d'une part une influence significative de la critique sur les ventes et d'autre part, une hétérogénéité de la sensibilité des consommateurs à la critique. Quatre profils spécifiques seront mis en lumière à travers une segmentation basée sur le degré d'expertise ressentie du consommateur et sur la confiance qu'il accorde aux critiques.

 

La fréquentation du patrimoine monumental: compléments et implications managériales d'une typologie sémiotique
Christine Petr-Le Huerou, France

Abstract : non disponible

   
 
Marketing
 
  Luxury and Art Marketing Strategies : Similarities and Differences
Danielle Allérès, France

Abstract: Any early luxury object, wearing the name of a worldwide famous traditional brand, has many things in common with both the world of art and arts and crafts trades. A contemporary luxury object or product may be inspired from a masterpiece or may result from some artist' works (creators or designers). In both instances, the setting up of marketing strategies which aim at highlighting the luxury product, appears to be at variance with their respective functions. Moreover, a marketing thought and a work of art (painting, sculpture…) seem to be totally antagonistic.

 

  Arts and Industry: The Disadvantageous Alliance
Ruth Bereson, Singapore

Abstract: This paper suggests that we should think more intensely about the nature of "culture," "media" and "arts" - and about the ways in which the current language of arts management makes such thought difficult, if not impossible. This conference is concerned with cultural policy, and yet terms "culture" and "policy" comprise notions of society and the state, both past and present, which require close scrutiny and challenge us to questions their legitimacy.

Earlier in this century "cultural policies" were understood to be the political programmes of totalitarian states; however today most democracies claim to have cultural policies. The policies they develop are increasingly determinist and often prescriptive in nature, although the questions involved in trying to reconcile central or even dispersed "federalist" cultural planning with artistic and critical freedom have scarcely been addressed. We have recently seen in Britain that in the Heritage Ministry the Arts Council no longer occupies a central place. In the United Kingdom, as elsewhere, the tendency has been to stifle debate by adopting a mechanistic jargon in which, for instance, the arts are simply described as "the arts industry."

This paper contends that such an entity is an oxymoron, ant that and other fashionable terms are unreal constructs; it will suggest that cultural issues must be once more addressed in plain English.

 

  Brand Identity and Museum Marketing
Niall G. Caldwell, United Kingdom

Abstract: Understanding museums as brands opens up a new dimension for marketing museums and galleries. In this paper the complex notion of brand identity is broken down into its component parts and applied to the museum context. The Guggenheim Museum and the British Museum are discussed to demonstrate the applicability of the method.

 

  Consumption, learning and the music production
Maurizio Caserta & Tiziana Cuccia

Abstract: not available

 

  Repeat Visits to Museums: An Economic Analysis
Adrian C. Darnell & Peter S. Johnson, United Kingdom

Abstract: Visitors to museums frequently make repeat visits. At the British Museum for example, the latest visitor survey for - 1992/93 - showed that in June 1993, 51 per cent of visitors had made an earlier visit, and 22 per cent had made six or more visits in the previous twelve months (Caygill and Leese 1994). These percentages varied with the month of the survey: in November 1992 for example, the proportion of repeat visitors was 69 per cent. A survey of visitors to fourteen museums and galleries in Leicestershire showed that the repeat visitor percentage varied from 39 to 81 per cent (Prince and Higgins 1992). This same survey showed important variations in repeat visiting by visitor characteristics. These studies underline the fact that not only is repeat visiting important, but also that there are variations over time, and across museum and visitor type. These variations call for explanation.

The potential importance of repeat visiting is further underlined by the finding in econometric studies of museum demand (see for example, Darnell et al. 1990, 1998), that lagged dependent variables have an important explanatory role to play. One possible explanation for this is that a visit in the current period affects the likelihood of a repeat visit by the same visitor in some subsequent period. A visitor in the current period may also have an effect on the likelihood that other people will subsequently visit, as his/her opinions on their own visit, shape the perceptions of others about the worthwhileness of making a repeat visit, or indeed a visit for the first time. These "trickle down" effects have not been explored in the literature.

A good knowledge of the determinants of repeat visits is likely to prove valuable for museum management and policy makers who wish to influence visitor flows, especially where the scope for encouraging further "virgin" demand is limited ("virgin" demand is that which arises from those who have never visited the museum in the past, i.e. first-time visitors). Yet there is little published work available on this topic.

In this paper, attention is focused exclusively on repeat visiting to an individual museum. Section 1 provides an analytical framework and Section 3 then shows, via a simple simulation exercise, the way in which the pattern of repeat visiting can affect the total visitor flow through time. This section also considers some of the implications of the simulation for museum management. Section 4 discusses what a more comprehensive approach to the determinants of repeat visiting might look like and suggests some avenues for future work. The final section concludes the paper. 

 

  Arts Sponsorship: Use and Practice in Brazilian Companies
Fernando Fischer, Brazil

Abstract: In Brazil, the corporate sponsorship is still poorly explored in academic works, not having a theoretical base consolidated in neither books nor studies about the reality and practice of the companies in this field. Stimulated by this need, this research of descriptive nature tried to understand how companies use arts sponsorship in Brazil.

A convenience sample was used of forty companies, that are well-known user of Arts Sponsorship in their marketing communications mix, distributed in five Brazilian states: Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul and São Paulo. The research consisted of a questionnaire structured with closed questions applied in an interview to the executive responsible for the selection and the management of Arts Sponsorship projects.

 

  Building Stronger Audiences at Performing Arts Organizations by Enhancing the Overall Experience of Current Patron Segments
Pam Fyffe, Daniel Gamba, Prakash Jothee, Peter Klug & Sandy Liu, USA

Abstract: In response to the changing financial climate, arts organizations are experimenting with new approaches to build customer base and generate revenue. The San Francisco Opera project used quantitative and qualitative methods to address segmenting audience, improving product/service offering, developing targeted marketing strategies, and implementing change. For this study, we employed an adaptive conjoint analysis survey to measure factors influencing consumer willingness to attend opera over an extended season and to identify subgroups within three main customer segments (subscribers potential subscribers, and single ticket purchasers) that could be migrated to higher levels of commitment.

 

  The New Circus
Caroline Gardiner & Suzy Kerr-Pertic, United Kingdom

Abstract: New circus in Britain has not achieved the status of new circus in North America or mainland Europe. In Britain, outside of festivals such as Edinburgh and the London International Festival of Theatre, circus, a largely commercial and unsubsidised venture, is struggling to survive. By contrast, the Canadian circus, Cirque du Soleil,, has become a huge, profitable international operation and in France there is an independent touring troupe in almost every region. This paper argues that if British circus is to survive then it will need the same kind of infrastructure and support as its international counterparts.

 

  Performance Indicators and the Evaluation of Non-Commercial Objectives in Cultural Organization
Ian Gilhespy, United Kingdom

Abstract:The paper reports of a research project designed to test the appropriateness and sensitivity of performance indicators in the management of cultural organizations. Specifically, this paper reports the analysis of the testing of a series of indicators designed to relate to some of the social objectives of cultural organizations, in particular, access maximization, attendance maximization and social cohesion. The paper concludes that certain indicators may be useful both in monitoring the achievement of objectives at an organizational level and providing evidence for advocacy purposes when reporting to supporting agencies but they are less useful if attempting to compare amongst organizations or for use as evidence of some of the more intangible values underpinning cultural activities.

 

  Showcasing Cultural Capitals: Lessons from the Past, Prospects for Rotterdam 2001
Frank Go and Mirjam van Dueren den Hollander, The Netherlands

Abstract: Rotterdam and Porto will be Cultural Capitals in 2001. What lessons might Rotterdam draw from Cultural Capitals past and present to enhance its performance as a host city and future urban development? This article pinpoints the importance of cooperation that uses critical success factors, knowledge transfer and internal marketing to showcase successful Cultural Capital events, yield positive impacts and shape public private partnerships that enable a host community to enhance its future quality of life. It presents an integrative framework comprised of four dimensions that are based on value creation, namely societal concerns, delivery of quality experience, team approach and maximizing marketing and concludes with a concise research agenda.

 

  On the Four Dimensions of Sponsorship and their Relevance in Cultural Sponsorships
Raoul Grünstein, Finland

Abstract: As a relatively new activity in the contemporary commercial sense of the word both the quantity and quality of sponsorship have undergone major changes during the last two decades. This paper studies the growth of sponsorship media and its gradual change into a major marketing communications tool. The various effects of sponsorship are studied and the four essential dimensions of every full-featured sponsorship are laid out. The paper culminates in analyzing two cultural sponsorships with the use of this newly developed framework.

The worldwide growth of sponsorship has taken place hand in hand with its development into a legitimate activity in the company's total marketing mix. The pros and cons of sponsorship are being debated in marketing literature but the tremendous growth of sponsorship shows that at least the corporate world has acknowledged the efficiency of sponsorship in attaining corporate marketing goals. Still an analytic framework of different sponsorship schemes as parts of an integrated marketing strategy has not yet evolved. It seems however that an analysis of the growing corporate interest in sponsorship from the viewpoint of budding marketing paradigms can capture several essential elements of the development of sponsorship. Such a program may also shed some light on the possibilities of cultural institutions in building efficient sponsorship programmes as new ways to achieve their financing and marketing goals.

 

  Creating and sustaining a competitive advantage in the film industry : a french-american comparison
Allhgre Hadida

Abstract: not available

 

  You Call this Fun? Reactions of Young First-Time Attenders to a Classical Concert
Bonita M. Kolb, USA

Abstract: A research project was conducted to learn the response of university students, whom had previously not been exposed to live classical music, to the experience of attending a classical concert. The knowledge of what people in this age group found attractive about attending a concert, could then be used to design better marketing campaigns. The knowledge of what this age group did not enjoy when attending concerts, could then be used to modify the manner in which concerts were conducted. The students enjoyed the music but found the traditional concert setting visually boring and emotionally sterile.

 

  A Little Exercise in Price Elasticity: Ticket Prices and Concert Attendance at the Musie d'Orsay from 1992-1998
Pierre Korzilius, France

Abstract: not available

 

  A Survey-Method for Market Oriented Price-Fixing
Hein Leemans, The Netherlands

Abstract: Price-fixing is one of the most important marketing decisions, a manager has to make. Management wants to estimate how the target group of the cultural organization will react to a specific or different price level(s). Measuring the direct price elasticity makes clear afterwards whether or not prices have been set on the optimum level. However, management wants to know in advance the optimum price level.

In this paper, a new and rather simple survey method is proposed for measuring the willingness to pay for a specific cultural product, e.g. books and CD's of a public library. This method measures the subjective appreciation of prices by asking four questions:

1 At which price level, borrowing a book or CD is expensive?
2 At which price level, borrowing a book or CD is cheap?
3 At which price level, borrowing a book or CD is too expensive?
4 At which price level, borrowing a book or CD is too cheap?

The survey method yields information on several price levels. The acceptable price range determines the minimum price. The "optimum price" seems at first sight the ideal price: the number of people, who oppose a particular price, is lowest here. However, one should also consider threshold values. When these levels are exceeded, the number of people opposing this price sharply increases. Prices set under these thresholds give opportunities for future price adjustments. The application of this price-fixing method is described and illustrated by an example regarding compact discs.

 

  Cultural Marketing and consumer behavior
Anna M. Alessandra Merlo & Pasquale Seddio, Italy

Abstract: not available

 

  Does Marketing Increase Aesthetic Value?
Gianfranco Mossetto, Italy

Abstract: This paper enquires into the nature of the added value creation of an artwork including its communication aspects.Under this respect, an artwork can be seen as an information stock (or flow). Ad such, it has to be part of an information process including an exchange between a producer (source) and a consumer (destination). To market an artwork is an unavoidable part of this process. Economics of information are applied to analyze the contribution of marketing to the formation of the value of an artifact besides (or in addition to or as a part of) its aesthetic value under different assumptions:

- aesthetic value is information in itself;
- aesthetic value needs information to be established as such;
- aesthetic value is part of the value of an artwork which is information.

 

  Full House Theory: A New Theory for Assessing Demand for Arts Centres
Jennifer Radbourne, Australia

Abstract: This paper analyses the theories and methodologies currently used to assess demand for trade centres and arts centres. The weaknesses of these theories are exposed and a new theory called Full House Theory is developed based on components of Central Place Theory and Gravity Theory and on five intervention factors as performance indicators for arts centre development: funding, leadership, marketing expertise, community ownership/cultural development, and public utilities. Through case study and survey analysis of performing arts centres in Queensland, Australia, this theory is formulated and is applied.

 

  Mega Art-Exhibitions in Rio de Janeiro: Marketing Issues
Enrique Saravia, Brazil

Abstract: During the period 1995-1998, Rio de Janeiro was the stage of several mega art-exhibitions organized by the National Museum of Fine Arts (MNBA) and the Museum of Modern Art (MAM). The shows were devoted to the works of Rodin, Claude Monet, Salvador Dali, Fernando Botero, Camille Claudel and the Costantini Collection.

The success of those exhibitions raised several marketing issues as, for example, the importance of sponsorships, their motivation and the way they were obtained; the method used to draw the public, pertaining to all Rio de Janeiro districts and social layers; and the importance and scope of the communication-mix that was used by sponsors and both their advertising and public relations agencies.

 

  Turning on the Next Generation to Classical Music: Tuning in to Young Adult Audiences
Johanne Scheff, Robin Dodge and Heather Welch, USA

Abstract: Many factors impact on the ability of classical music presenters to attract young adult audiences. Among today's younger generation, specifically those in the 25-35 age group, lifestyles are different than they were for previous generations, there is more intense competition for their limited leisure time, they are more spontaneous in their choice of leisure activities, are more selective about which programs they attend, they tend to be highly price sensitive, and have much less arts education with which to develop an interest in and love for classical music. The researchers were invited by the Ravinia Music Festival in Highland Park, Illinois to conduct exploratory research in the form of focus groups to understand how best to attract the young adult segment to classical music programs.

 

  A Simple Theory of Film Choice
John Sedgwick, United Kingdom

Abstract: This theoretical approach proposes that filmgoers make a priori judgements about the likelihood of loss and gain, and hence its dispersion, associated with each of the films in their respective final choice sets. Knowledge that expectations are more firmly held for some films and less so for other enables the filmgoer to establish potential surprise profiles for these films. The comparison between these risk profiles together with the filmgoer's personal attitude to risk form the basis upon which film selection is made.

 

  Kultex - Export Promotion of Culture Products from Norway
Carl Arthur Solberg, Norway

Abstract: The present paper analyses the effects of a two and a half year export promotion programme directed toward culture products in Norway - Kultex. Kultex has during the period of 1996-1998 initiated 19 export promotion projects benefiting primarily film, phonogram and publishing companies. 18 projects were analyzed through archival research and personal interviews with 35 persons in order to investigate effects on sales, competence and learning in exporting (Johanson and Vahlne 1977), network relations development (Haakanson and Snehota 1995).

 

  Dimensions of Reading Pleasure
Cedric P. Stalpers

Abstract: For marketeers, it is important to know which needs are fulfilled by their products - also cultural products - and which pleasure they provide. This information can be used for product positioning and its marketing communication. However, what needs do cultural products, such as works of fiction, fulfill and what pleasure do they provide?

On the basis of psychological theories on emotions and empirical research into motives, satisfactions and needs concerning leisure products, seventeen different kinds of needs can be formulated, concerning the needs fiction fulfills and the pleasure it provides. These 17 dimensions can be grouped into five categories: affective-approach (actively fantasizing about the contents of a book), affective-avoid (passively reading a book to get rid of stress and boredom), cognitive (thinking and learning), social (reading a book to have a subject to discuss with others) and utilitarian (reading to acquire a better knowledge of one's language or to get better grades in one's studies). The main research question is: which dimensions of reading pleasure can be empirically found and is each dimensions as important as the other?

Three hypotheses form the framework of this study:

1. The affective and cognitive dimensions of reading pleasure are more frequent than the utility dimension, as fiction is a hedonic and not a utilitarian product.
2. the affective and cognitive dimensions of reading pleasure are more frequent than the social dimension, as reading is a highly individual activity.
3. Genres (suspense, literature and science fiction) differ in the reading pleasure they provide. Romantic novels are aimed at more affective reactions while leterature is considered to require more cognitive elaboration.

A survey was conducted among 141 readers of fiction, who were a convenience sample. A questionnaire was used consisting of 72 Likert-scale items and two open-ended questions. The object of the questionnaire was the respondent's favourite fiction title. The Liket-scale items were thought to measure each of the 17 identified dimensions.

 

  Films in search of movie-goers : optimal programming of the different niches
Dorothee Verdaasdonk, The Netherlands

Abstract: not available

 

Patterns of cultural behavior : Are they homogeneous ?
Hugo Verdaasdonk, The Netherlands

Abstract: not available